About 100 countries have restrictions that generally allow abortion only in limited situations, including for socio-economic reasons, risks to a woman`s physical or mental health, or the presence of fetal abnormalities. However, the legal language regarding exceptions for fetal insufficiency is often vague, creating uncertainty for health professionals about the legality of certain abortions. Zambia is one of the few countries in Africa where abortion is allowed for economic and social reasons, but despite a liberal law, structural and cultural barriers make it difficult for Zambian women to have an abortion. Zambia has less than one doctor for every ten thousand people, and for the more than 60 percent of Zambians living in rural areas, there are few health professionals. The law states that only a licensed doctor [PDF] and not a nurse or midwife can perform an abortion, making safe access out of reach for most. Zambia is plagued by a high rate of abortion-related maternal mortality, with about 30% of maternal deaths caused by abortion complications. But even when abortions are protected by law, new political majorities can overturn these measures or challenge them in court. Ultimately, international records show that there is no foolproof way to protect the right to abortion: they are regularly challenged in the legal and political spheres. The global trend of abortion law is moving towards liberalization. Since 2000, twenty-nine countries have amended their abortion laws, and all but one – Nicaragua – have expanded the legal bases on which women have access to abortion services.
Just last year, Ireland legalized abortion in a referendum, and South Korea`s Supreme Court declared the country`s abortion ban unconstitutional. While most countries have taken steps to expand the grounds for abortion, some – including El Salvador, Poland and the United States – are adopting measures to tighten restrictions. Here`s a look at how abortion laws have changed in a handful of countries around the world: Although the legal status of abortion varies widely by region, almost all countries allow abortion in at least certain circumstances; In the world, only six countries completely ban abortion. Most industrialized countries allow the procedure without restriction. About 125 countries have restrictions that generally allow abortion only in limited situations, including for socio-economic reasons, risks to a woman`s physical or mental health, or the presence of fetal abnormalities. Finally, there are countless additional guidelines for abortion laws in many countries, such as requiring parental/spouse consent (or a police report in cases of rape), restricting access to methods to determine the sex of the fetus, or requiring the pregnant woman to first see an ultrasound or listen to a fetal heartbeat. 91 million (6%) of women of childbearing age live in countries that completely ban abortion. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the legality of abortion around the world actually has little or no impact on abortion rates worldwide.
Legally or not, abortions can, will and will take place. However, the legality of abortion affects the safety of these abortions. Women who do not have access to a legal abortion often turn to illegal or “homemade” abortion options, which are usually much riskier, more dangerous and less effective than legal options practiced by professional doctors in a clinical setting. Abortion has existed since ancient times, with natural abortions found in a variety of tribal peoples and in most written sources. The first known records of abortion techniques and general reproductive regulation date back to 2700 BC. J.-C. in China and 1550 BC. J.-C. in Egypt.  Early texts contain little mention of abortion or abortion law. When it comes to concern for the property rights of men, the preservation of social order and the duty to produce citizens capable of the State or the community.
The harshest penalties were usually reserved for a woman who obtained an abortion against her husband`s will and slaves who performed an abortion on a high-status woman. Religious texts often contained harsh condemnations of abortion that recommended repentance but rarely imposed secular punishments. At common law in England and the United States, abortion was illegal at any time after acceleration – when the movements of the fetus could first be felt by the woman. Under the live birth rule, the fetus in rerum natura was not considered a “reasonable being”; and abortion was not treated as murder under English law. In Germany, abortion is still banned, but generally not punished Poland bans abortion with relatively few exceptions compared to its European neighbors, allows it only in cases of rape or serious fetal abnormality or to preserve the life and health of the mother. In 2016, when the government considered a bill to repeal all exemptions from prohibition, 150,000 women took to the streets during a nationwide strike, and the legislation was overwhelmingly rejected. Similar bills were eventually introduced in Lithuania and Russia. In other Eastern European countries – including Armenia, Georgia, Macedonia, Russia and Slovakia – recent legislation imposes preconditions such as mandatory waiting periods or counselling for patients seeking abortions. Although the legal status of abortion varies considerably from region to region, a large majority of countries allow abortion at least in certain circumstances; Around the world, two dozen countries completely ban abortion. Most industrialized countries allow the procedure without restriction. The following briefly highlights some of the world`s largest countries and their respective perspectives on abortions, abortion laws to date, or abortion bans over the years. The court ruled that abortion performed in the early stages of pregnancy – without defining this stage more clearly – as well as in cases of rape or in cases of fetal viability, or in cases where the woman`s health is at risk, should not be criminalized.
As a result, many of the country`s 31 states have been forced to relax abortion laws to comply with Mexico`s first national regulations. Abortion is completely legal until the 12th week of pregnancy in Russia, as well as up to 22 weeks in case of rape and at any time when the pregnancy threatens the life of the mother.